There are approaches that initiate the decline of the Ottoman Empire from after the death of Suleiman the Magnificent. This is a classic approach, but has found supporters among historians and social scientists. This understanding has changed with historians such as Halil İnalcık. The Ottoman Empire followed a slow withdrawal strategy before it collapsed, despite the loss of land, the state has been able to maintain its existence for about 200 years. In spite of the weakening of the military power in the last 70-80 years of this 200 years, it has maintained its existence with its successful politics and its bureaucrats. This global policy making power, along with failing to prevent the decadence of the Ottoman Empire, the experience gained here has been transmitted to the Republic of Turkey. The last period of the Ottoman Empire was an intense change and at the same time the process of resistance to change. In these years deep-rooted reforms, the formation of an independent intellectual class from the state, new social and political regulations, education, law, economy, army, health, trade, transportation, mining and all other living spaces are deeply transformed. During this process of change; the epistemology that determines the fields of existence, knowledge and value is also transformed. Dissolution period, the Tanzimat process which started in 1839, the cadres of the Tanzimat period and the decadence/collapse of the Ottoman Empire were the main subjects that every Republican intellectual with different ideologies worked. Tanzimat is a period of fundamental importance with the transfer of the term’s qualifactions to present society and the state. It is not possible to understand the Republic without understanding this period. Cahit Tanyol (1914- ...) and Şerif Mardin (1927-2017) have worked on this period with the identities of social scientists and sociologists. A comparative analysis of their work, to reveal the historical and sociological approaches in which backwards Republic and is important for finding more effective solutions to Turkey’s current problems.
Ottoman Empire, Tanzimat, Meşrutiyet/Constitutionalism, Intellectuals, Cahit Tanyol, Şerif Mardin
|Yazar:||Erkan ÇAV -|